Tracking UAV in infrared videos using siamese networks

Siamese network-based trackers have achieved excellent performance

on visual object tracking. Some Siamese network experiments on long-terms visual

tracking benchmarks achieve state-of-the-art performance, confirming its

effectiveness and efficiency. In this work, we study state-of-the-art Siamese

networks, then, propose a model based on Siamese architecture to tracking UAV

from the Anti-UAV Challenge dataset include 100 videos infrared. Network

architecture using pre-trained ResNet50, depth-wise cross-correlation, focal loss.

Experiments on the Anti-UAV infrared dataset show its robustness to the different

challenges of real infrared scenes with a high efficiency.

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Tracking UAV in infrared videos using siamese networks
456 H . D. Thang,  , N. C. Thanh, “Tracking UAV in infrared videos using Siamese networks.” 
Nghiên cứu khoa học công nghệ 
 In this section, we describe the proposed network, which is a more advanced ConvNet 
 to learn an effective model that enhances tracking robustness and accuracy. As shown 
in figure 2, network consists of a Siamese network backbone and multiple RPN heads. The 
Siamese network backbone is responsible for computing the convolutional feature maps of 
the template patch and the search patch, which uses an off-the-shelf convolutional 
network. The RPN head includes a classification module and a regression module. 
3.1. Network Backbone 
 In our tracking method, we adopt ResNet-50 [21] as the backbone network by 
modifying the strides and adding dilated convolutions for conv4 and conv5 blocks, detail 
in table 1. Feature maps in outputs of conv3, conv4, conv5 are fed into three RPN head 
modules individually. 
 Table 1. ResNet50 backbone. 
 Bottleneck in conv4 Bottleneck in conv5 
 conv1x1 conv3x3 conv1x1 conv1x1 conv3x3 conv1x1 
 original stride 1 2 1 1 2 1 
ResNet-50 padding 0 1 0 0 1 0 
 dilation 1 1 1 1 1 1 
modified stride 1 1 1 1 1 1 
ResNet-50 padding 0 2 0 0 4 0 
 dilation 1 2 1 1 4 1 
3.2. RPN Head 
 RPN head (figure 1, right) consists of a classification module and a regression module. 
Both modules receive features from the template branch and the search branch. Features 
from the template branch and the search branch is adjusted to the same number of 
channels. Then two feature maps with the same number of channels do the depth-wise 
cross-correlation channel by channel. 
Figure 1. Illustration of proposed framework. The left sub-figure shows its main structure, 
 where c3, c4, and c5 denote the feature maps of the backbone network. The right sub-
 figure shows each RPN head, where DW-Corr means depth-wise cross-correlation 
 operation, Reg/Cls Map denote the feature maps of the RPN heads output. 
 With k anchors, RPN Head needs to output 2k channels for classification and 4k 
channels for regression. The correlation is computed on both the classification branch and 
the regression branch: 
Tạp chí Nghiên cứu KH&CN quân sự, Số Đặc san Hội thảo Quốc gia FEE, 10 - 2020 457 
 Toán học – Công nghệ thông tin 
where * denotes the convolution operation with [ (z)]cls or [ (z)]reg as the convolution 
kernel, denotes classification map, indicates regression map. 
3.3. Classification Loss and Regression Loss 
 With specifies the ground-truth class and is the model’s 
estimated probability for the class with label , define : 
 Loss for classification is the focal loss [10]: 
 Smooth loss with with normalized coordinates for regression: 
 Let , denote center point and shape of the anchor boxes. Let , 
denote those of the ground truth boxes, normalized distance [2]: 
 Loss for regression is: 
 The overall loss of the network is a combination of the classification loss and the 
regression loss: 
where λ1, λ2 is hyper-parameter to balance the two parts. 
3.4. Training and Inference 
 Training. Our entire network can be trained end-to-end on large-scale datasets. The 
backbone network ResNet50[21] is pre-train on ImageNet[22] for image labeling. We 
train network with image pairs sampled on videos or still images to learn a generic notion 
of how to measure the similarities between general objects for visual tracking. The training 
sets include, ImageNet VID[22], ImageNet DET[22], COCO[23] and GOT-10k[24]. The 
size of a template patch is 127×127 pixels, while the size of a search patch is 255×255 
pixels. The number of anchors are k=5 with stride=8, scales=8 and 
ratios=[0.33,0.5,1,2,3] hyper-parameter . 
 Data augmentation: we use data augmentation techniques such as flipping, shifting 
scale, blurring, gray scale etc. to increase the variety of samples fed to the network. 
 Inference. During inference, we crop the template patch from the first frame and feed 
it to the feature extraction network. For subsequent frames, we crop the search patch and 
extract features based on the target position of the previous frame, and then perform 
prediction in the search region to get the total classification map and regression map. 
Afterward, we can get prediction boxes based on strategy is mentioned in [2]. After 
prediction boxes are generated, we use the cosine window and scale change penalty to 
smooth target movements and changes, then the prediction box with the best score is 
selected and its size is updated by linear interpolation with the state in the previous frame. 
In the case of Anti-UAV have challenges of long-terms tracking datasets are severe out-of-
458 H . D. Thang,  , N. C. Thanh, “Tracking UAV in infrared videos using Siamese networks.” 
Nghiên cứu khoa học công nghệ 
view, full occlusion, and fast motion. During failure cases, we gradually increase the 
search region by local-to-global strategy [5]. Specifically, the size of the search region is 
iteratively growing with a constant step when failed tracking is indicated. 
 We perform a lot of experiments on the Anti-UAV infrared dataset and evaluate the 
performance of the proposed tracking approach. 
4.1. Implementation Details 
 The network backbone is pre-trained on the ImageNet-1k classification task. The 
Network is trained with stochastic gradient descent (SGD). We use synchronized SGD 
over 4 GPUs with a total of 64 pairs per minibatch (16 pairs per GPU), which takes 48 
hours to converge. We train a total of 20 epochs, using a warmup learning rate of 0.001 to 
0.005 in the first 5 epochs, and a learning rate exponentially decayed from 0.005 to 
0.00005 in the last 15 epochs. Weight decay of 0.0005 and momentum of 0.9 are used. 
The training loss is the sum of classification loss (focal-loss) and the standard 
 loss for regression. During the inference phase, the sizes of the search region in 
the short-term phase and defined failure cases are set to 255 and 832, respectively. The 
thresholds to enter and leave failure cases are set to 0.825 and 0.996. The code is 
implemented in Python using PyTorch base on the PySOT. 
4.2. Evaluation 
 The Anti-UAV workshop ( presents a benchmark dataset and 
evaluation methodology for detecting and tracking UAVs. The test-dev dataset consists of 
100 high-quality infrared video sequences, spanning multiple occurrences of multi-scale 
UAVs. This dataset has different challenges in: varying sizes, varying ratios, motion blur, 
fast motion, indistinguishable background (figure 2). 
 Figure 2. Anti-UAV Dataset ( 
 We use the data to evaluate our algorithm. The tracking average accuracy score (acc) is 
utilized for evaluation. The acc is defined as: 
 At frame t, the is the IoU between the corresponding ground truth and tracking 
boxes. The is the visibility flag of the ground truth. If the target exists in the current 
frame, . When the target does not exist in the frame and 
 , if the tracker’s prediction is empty, , otherwise, 
 . The accuracy is averaged over all the frames. Our acc score is 
calculated according to the average results on the 100 IR videos. From table 2 it is seen 
that our approach gets the high average accuracy, more than SiamRPN++[6]. Results also 
Tạp chí Nghiên cứu KH&CN quân sự, Số Đặc san Hội thảo Quốc gia FEE, 10 - 2020 459 
 Toán học – Công nghệ thông tin 
show that models released of SiamMask [7] and SiamBAN [8] not suitable for long-terms 
tracking datasets as Anti-UAV. The code of SiamFC [1] is the Pytorch version and the 
model is provided by the AntiUAV organizer. For SiamMask [7], SiamRPN++ [6] we use 
the codes and models released at For SiamBAN [8] we 
uses the codes and models released at Results of 
ATOM [16], DiMP [25], SiamDW-LT [26] are referenced from [20]. 
 Table 2. Benchmark results. 
 Tracker Name acc 
 SiamBAN[8] 0.390 
 SiamMask[7] 0.403 
 SiamFC[1] 0.420 
 ATOM[16] 0.5322 
 DiMP[25] 0.5507 
 SiamDW-LT[26] 0.6379 
 SiamRPN++[6] 0.648 
 Ours 0.654 
4.3. Visual Results 
 To visualize the performance of our tracker, we provide some representative results of 
our tracker. The frames are from the Anti-UAV dataset. As shown in Fig. 3, each row 
represents a video sequence. The green box denotes ours, the yellow one denotes the 
ground truth. 
 Figure 3. Visual results of our tracker on 5 videos, all the data from Anti-UAV infrared 
 dataset. The yellow box denotes ground truth, the green box denotes ours. 
460 H . D. Thang,  , N. C. Thanh, “Tracking UAV in infrared videos using Siamese networks.” 
Nghiên cứu khoa học công nghệ 
 In this paper, a tracker UAVs in infrared video-based on Siamese Network is proposed, 
which consists of backbone ResNet50 and three RPN heads for classification and 
regression. Experiments on the Anti-UAV dataset show that the proposed infrared tracking 
algorithm is robust to the challenges in real infrared scenes with high efficiency. Our 
approach gets acc equal to 0.654, compare to another method such as ATMF, we need 
more improve the model next time by applying some strategy when a failed case such as 
using random search or classifier. 
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 Trình theo dõi dựa trên mạng Siamese đã đạt được hiệu suất cao trong theo dõi 
 đối tượng trực quan. Một số mạng Siamese thực nghiệm trên các bộ dữ liệu lớn về 
 theo dõi đối tượng đạt được hiệu suất hiện đại, khẳng định hiệu suất và hiệu quả. 
 Trong bài báo này, chúng tôi nghiên cứu các mạng Siamese hiện đại, sau đó đề xuất 
 mô hình dựa trên kiến trúc Siamese để theo dõi UAV từ bộ dữ liệu Anti-UAV 
 Challenge gồm 100 video hồng ngoại. Kiến trúc mạng sử dụng mạng đã được đào 
 tạo trước như ResNet50, tương quan chéo sâu và rộng và focal-loss cho phân lớp 
 UAV với nền. Các thử nghiệm trên bộ dữ liệu hồng ngoại Anti-UAV cho thấy, sự 
 mạnh mẽ của mô hình đối với các thách thức khác nhau của cảnh hồng ngoại thực 
 tế với hiệu quả cao. 
Từ khóa: Theo dõi UAV; Mạng Siamese; Theo dõi đối tượng; Học sâu. 
 Received 3rd August 2020 
 Revised 5th October 2020 
 Published 5th October 2020 
Author affiliations: 
 1 Military Information Technology Institute, Academy of Military Science and Technology; 
 2 University of Engineering and Technology, Vietnam National University. 
462 H . D. Thang,  , N. C. Thanh, “Tracking UAV in infrared videos using Siamese networks.” 

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